Policy and Regulations in Kosovo*
Several strategical, law and bylaws documents developed in the support of WBL in Kosovo, as below:
LAW No. 04/L-138 FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING – Approved in 2013
- The Article 2 Definitions, section 1.7 defines the Apprenticeship or alternate training – systematic, long-term training with alternating periods at the workplace and in an educational institution or training center.
- The Article 6 Qualifications and Modules of Vocational Education and Training, section 3.4. highlights that in IVET is allowed implementation of dual forms of vocational education and training in which practical training and experience is realized in the enterprise while contracting enterprises. Conditions and criteria that govern such provisions are regulated by the sub-legal act.
Administrative Instruction 01/2014 on organization and planning of the educational process in Vocational Education and Training
- Article 2, Section 1.5 highlights that the VET school concludes an agreement with the labour market for the realization of professional practice.
Administrative Instruction 14/2015 on the implementation of the final exam on practical modules for students in the workshops – enterprises and the learning outcomes
- Article 9, the place of holding the exam, states the following “The final exam shall be kept in workshop, cabinets, school laboratories or in enterprises designated by the school commission.
As can be seen above, there is a limited explanation by legislation available on the implementation of WBL. But sufficient promotion of it has been provided by the stakeholders involved. Great attention to its improvement foreseen in the strategic documents listed below.
The Strategy for improvement of professional practice in Kosovo 2013-2020 – has been launched in 2014 and containing the following strategic priorities:
- Strategic Priority 1 – Increasing the number of employers who offer places/opportunities for professional practice;
- Strategic Priority 2 – Increase the number of VET students participating in professional practice;
- Strategic Priority 3 – Improve the quality of professional practice;
- Strategic Priority 4 – Provide a framework for coordinated work among local actors aimed at improving professional practice in enterprises
To date, the Guidelines for the schools and Guidelines for businesses foreseen in the action plan of this strategic document are developed.
The National Development Strategy 2016 – 2021, Pillar 1 “Human Capital”, Intervention “Improved correlation between skills acquired in education and labor market needs”. The following concrete activities of the measure of this intervention foresees:
- Expedite the process of professional standards development, in conformity with the European Qualification Framework (EQF) as well as National Qualifications Framework (NQF), as well as the revised National Occupations Classification System.
- Determining high priority areas in Vocational Education and Training (VET) through consultation with Kosovo’s development policies and priority sectors. Development and implementation of core curricula in modular form, in line with VET priority areas and implementation of VET teacher training programmes for these sectors, based on occupational standards.
- Implementation of the combined VET pilot system with elements of dual learning (combination of learning in schools and enterprises) starting with VET priority areas and in compliance with the core curriculum. Coordinate the pay subsidization system with priority areas, to allow better integration of VET graduates into the labor market.
- Development and implementation of the National Skills Forecast System. It shall be done by ensuring connection with the career orientation systems inside the schools and employment services/lifelong learning services. Create conditions for support services and studies to track career progress.
- Relate research work at universities with industry by facilitating access to smart specializations in line with Europe 2020 strategy. This provides for public and private investment in research and development (R&D) in a number of specific industrial sectors.
The intervention and its concrete activities of the measure elaborated at the following education sectorial strategic planning document KESP 2017 – 2021.
Kosovo Education Strategic Plan 2017 – 2021, Action Plan Result 6.5. “All students of vocational schools carry out practical learning in school and professional practice outside the school in line with the curriculum.”
Its realization foresees the following:
- Development of tools to incentivize companies to hire students for internships;
- Development of regulation for student health protection during the internship;
- Training of personnel from the office for cooperation with the economy;
- Provision of workshops to 15 vocational schools;
- The signing of cooperation agreements with companies for students’ internship, and their implementation;
- Drafting sub-legal acts and defining criteria to establish public-private partnerships in the education sector.
There are policy measures including clear and measurable implementation plans, budgets and timelines, but missing incentives for interns and apprenticeships and not monitoring instrument for the feedback. The policy is under implementation.
Following the Action Plan of the KESP 2017 – 2021 as mentioned above, Switzerland, Germany, and LuxDev funded have supported activities foreseen in the strategic documents. GIZ and Swiss projects elaborated above, while with LuxDev we announced the implementation of the Business Model Offices consisting the three main pillars in ten different schools spread all around the country: Industrial Liaison Office, Data Management and Career Guidance Office and Service Provision Unit. In the economic schools, the Marketing Unit shall be part of this settlement too.
MEST will coordinate activities with external partners (current and potential partners, private and public sector, NGOs, and social partners) and internal stakeholders (students, teachers, instructors). This unit has three main responsabilities: (a) Development of Labour Market Information, Partnerships, and Marketing.
Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (MEST) & Kosovo Chamber of Commerce (KCC) for cooperation between the public and private sector and vocational education and training in Kosovo, with the focus on the provision of the following services:
- Labour Market Research;
- Development of Occupational Standards;
- Intermediation of cooperation between VET schools and businesses;
- Joint activities;
- The realization of the professional practice;
- Development of databases for different profiles;
- Public debates on improving the image of VET;
- Career guidance from the perspective of the businesses.
The development of occupational standards, the labor market research, and joint activities are the main activities taken place recently as the outcome of this agreement.