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Policy and Regulations

This part of the Western Balkans Alliance for Work-based Learning knowledge portal is giving a brief overview per participating economies of the regulatory framework, defining the modes, scope, roles, responsibilities etc. in the system. In addition to a brief overview, the original documents are presented in the category of Documents, and linked here.

Policy and Regulations in Albania

In Albania, the reform of VET provision focuses on completing the new legal framework for VET, expanding and developing institutional capacities, providing training for all staff and gradually filling the gaps between labour market needs and the skills and qualifications offered.

  • National strategy for employment and Skills, 2014-2020 (NESS) came into force through approval by Decision of the Council of Ministers (DCM) No. 818 on 26.11.2014. In order to implement the NESS Albania’s VET system is under pressure to undergo a comprehensive reform process where the realization of dual training approaches play a leading role. The NESS is focusing on the following four sub-strategies:
  • Foster decent job opportunities through effective labour market policies.
  • Offer quality vocational education and training to youth and adults.
  • Promote social inclusion and territorial cohesion.
  • Strengthen the governance of the labour market and qualification systems


Policy and Regulations in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Overview of the existing Policy and Regulations

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the initial formal secondary education, there are 311 schools, 208 of which are VET, which can be technical (four-year education) and vocational (three-year education and training).

In the schoolyear 2017/2018 there was a total of 124.368 students in 311 schools.  The majority of students, 55%, went to technical schools (VET schools with a duration of four years), followed by gymnasiums 23,8% (general secondary education), while in vocational (three-year education) there was a total of 18,2 students…


Policy and Regulations in Kosovo*

Several strategical, law and bylaws documents developed in the support of WBL in Kosovo*, such as :

  • Administrative Instruction 01/2014 on organization and planning of the educational process in Vocational Education and Training
  • Administrative Instruction 14/2015 on the implementation of the final exam on practical modules for students in the workshops – enterprises and the learning outcomes
  • The Strategy for improvement of professional practice in Kosovo* 2013-2020 –
  • The National Development Strategy 2016 – 2021, Pillar 1 “Human Capital”, Intervention “Improved correlation between skills acquired in education and labor market needs
  • Kosovo Education Strategic Plan 2017 – 2021, Action Plan Result 6.5. “All students of vocational schools carry out practical learning in school and professional practice outside the school in line with the curriculum.”
  • Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology (MEST) & Kosovo* Chamber of Commerce (KCC)


Policy and Regulations in Montenegro

The system of work-based learning in Montenegro (dual education system) is regulated by the Law on Vocational Education and Training. It is aimed at facilitating the transition of young people educated in VET schools to labour market, as well as reducing the risk of unemployment of VET graduates.


Policy and Regulations in North Macedonia

In North Macedonia, work-based learning mainly takes place during formal upper secondary VET.

The Law on Vocational Education and Training regulates the planning, organizing and implementing of practical training in the school and at employers (work based learning).

All relevant documents, such as: Strategy for Vocational Education and Training in a Lifelong Learning context 2013-2020 and Action Plan – Better Skills for a Better Tomorrow, Education Strategy for 2018-2025 and Action Plan, Concept for Modernization of Technical education, treat work based learning with a commitment to improve  WBL in all forms, both for students and adults, and give a special place and role in the education system.


Policy and Regulations in Serbia

The existing laws which regulate VET in Serbia are: The Law on foundations of the Education System, the Law on Secondary Education, the Law on Dual Education, The Labor Law and the Rulebook on the Final Exam Program.

Each stakeholder has its specific role.

The school is in charge of monitoring and enhancing the career development of the student. It realizes part of the curriculum related to the theoretic part and exercises; it monitors, in cooperation with the employer, parts of the curriculum related to the practical training in the company ( at the employer’s)…


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