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Work-based learning helps employers hire better-prepared employees who understand workplace expectations


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Adult learning provider
Any organisation or individual providing learning activities for adults
Business clusters
A network of connected businesses, suppliers, and associates in a specific field that are all located in the same geographical area. Clusters are thought to provide increased efficiency and productivity so businesses can be competitive on a national and global scale Source:
DACUM is an acronym for developing a curriculum. It is a one- or two-day storyboarding process that provides a picture of what the worker does in terms of duties, tasks, knowledge, skills, traits and in some cases the tools the worker uses. The information is presented in graphic chart form and can include information on critical and frequently performed tasks and the training needs of workers DACUM is an acronym for Developing A CurriculUM, but it actually involves only the first step in a full vocational curriculum development process. Instead of job observation, DACUM uses guided group discussion with expert workers. The DACUM process includes, in addition to occupational specific tasks, the separate identification of work enablers: general knowledge and skills, worker behaviours (personal traits and interpersonal skills), and tools and equipment used. These tasks become the focus of curriculum development. DACUM is used in many developed and developing countries.
Employee as an individual who works for a public or private employer and who in return receives compensation in the form of wages, salaries, fees, gratuities, payment by results or payment in kind. Professional military staff are also included.
An employer is a person who operates his or her own unincorporated economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade and hires one or more employees.
Employers’ survey
Method of obtaining candid opinion of employers by giving them an opportunity to anonymously answer queries raised in a questionnaire.
Enterprise size
Enterprises can be classified in different categories according to their size; for this purpose different criteria may be used (e.g. number of persons employed, employees, balance sheet total, investments,...), but the one most common in a statistical context is number of persons employed: • micro enterprises: fewer than 10 persons employed; • small enterprises: 10 to 49 persons employed; • medium-sized enterprises: 50 to 249 persons employed; • large enterprises: 250 or more persons employed. The number of persons employed should not be confused with employees or full-time equivalents; 'persons employed' includes employees but also working proprietors, partners working regularly in the enterprise and unpaid family workers.
Focus group
A group formed to elicit ideas and attitudes about a specific product, service, or opportunity in an interactive group environment. The participants share their impressions, preferences, and needs, guided by a moderator.
Function is a group of duties that constitute one of the distinct and major activities involved in the work performed. A Duty is a distinct activity that is a logical, essential step in the performance of a function and a detailed description of: what work is done (action), how the work is done (procedures, materials, tools or equipment) and why the work is done (purpose).
Functional analysis
Functional Analysis (FA) is not a method for occupational analysis in a strict sense. Rather, the idea is to start with the identification of the key purpose of an occupation in the major sectors where it is found, identifying the main functions, breaking these in turn down to subfunctions until outcomes for each function are identified following a strictly logical sequence. Functional Analysis, as practiced in the United Kingdom, uses a consultative process that involves practitioners, managers, and, in some cases, the users or “consumers” of standards. The modules are analysed one by one to identify the perform- 25 Developing OS Developing OS mane requirements. The FA method has been used in several countries in Europe and the Middle East and is being experimented with in South America.
Group of tasks
Groups of tasks in occupational standards are defined as groups of tasks which are common to all occupations, no matter in which sector they are, or what the complexity of occupations covered by occupational standard is.
Job is defined as a set of tasks and duties executed, or meant to be executed, by one person. Persons are classified by occupation through their relationship to a past, present or future job.
Job analysis
The process of examining a job in detail to identify its component tasks; the detail and approach may vary according to the purpose for which the job is being analysed, e.g., training, equipment design, work layout. Three methodologies for defining occupational standards reflect this evolution from initial task-based to competence-based occupational analysis and standards. The methods include job/task analysis, DACUM, and Functional Analysis.
Job standard
The level of achievement that an individual is expected to reach by reference to specified rating levels (standards) and criteria that have been decided for each task / activity within a job/job title.
Job-relevant skills
Job-relevant skills are task-related and build on a combination of cognitive and socio- emotional skills. Cognitive skills, defined as the “ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Social - emotional skills, also referred to as soft or non-cognitive skills, relate to traits covering multiple domains—social, emotional, personality, behavioural, and attitudinal among them.
Job/task analysis
The aim of the analysis is to divide and subdivide jobs and tasks into their constituent parts, in order to provide information for training and to develop benchmarks for piece rate wages. In spite of fundamental changes in job and task analysis, the approach is still used for specific purposes and in certain sectors, including some service and administrative occupations.
Key performance indicators (KPIs)
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are the critical (key) indicators of progress toward an intended result. KPIs provides a focus for strategic and operational improvement, create an analytical basis for decision making and help focus attention on what matters most.
Labour force survey
Labour force survey enables realization of situation and monitoring of labour market changes through internationally established indicators, including employment and unemployment rates. Additionally, the survey provides socio - demographic characteristics of the employed, unemployed and inactive population, and is the only source regarding the information on informal employment.
An occupation is defined as a set of jobs whose main tasks and duties are characterised by a high degree of similarity. A person may be associated with an occupation through the main job currently held, a second job or a job previously held.
Occupational Description/Description of Occupation
Occupational description is a brief general statement describing an occupation in comparison to an occupational standard that is more detailed listing of all major activities that a worker must perform in the occupation. Examples of things a job description might include are: • the job title • the employer’s name and its focus • the job purpose • main tasks and responsibilities • the reporting lines of the job - who the person is responsible to and (if appropriate) which other roles report to them • any minimum legal requirements, education or qualifications, or occupational licensing • ideal personal skills, knowledge and attributes for the job • any delegated authority the position has (financial and people) • place of work • performance measures for the job • hours of work • wage or salary range • customers and stakeholders, who the job works with internally and externally • any organisational competencies or values • the type of employment (e.g. full-time, part-time, permanent, fixed term, casual).
Occupational skills profile (OSP)
An OSP summarises essential characteristics required for a given job: the level of education and training required (and hence the complexity of the occupation); the field of education and training required; and other requirements in terms of knowledge, skills, competence, occupational interests, and work values.
Occupational standard
There are different approaches to the term occupational standard: • Occupational standard refers to the statements of the activities and tasks related to a specific job and to its practice; • It can also be as “statements of the skills, knowledge and understanding needed for effective performance in a job role and are expressed as outcomes of competent performance.
Performance criteria
The part of a competency standard which specifies the required level of performance to be demonstrated by students to be deemed competent.
A set of defined questions, with a choice of answers, used to collect information from respondents.
A sector defines a group of related economic entities or enterprises (e.g., financial sector, mining sector, and agricultural sector).
Skills analysis
An identification of the skills or competencies needed for each job.
Standard of competence
A performance specification describing what is expected of a person performing a particular work activity. It is expressed in elements of work together with performance criteria. Tasks, functions, competencies. Jobs consist of tasks. Within individual tasks, functions can be identified requiring certain competencies. Such competencies become “competency elements”. A competency element may be described through its title, the task to be implemented, performance criteria, and underpinning knowledge and skills
Structured interviews
Eliciting information from a person or group of people in an informal or formal setting by asking relevant questions and recording the responses. Face-to-face consultations with employers, based on prepared questions or questionnaire.
Upper secondary education
Final stage of secondary education that normally begins at the end of compulsory education. The entrance age is usually 15 or 16 years. Entrance qualifications (completion of compulsory education) and other minimum entry requirements are generally needed. Instruction is often more subject-oriented than lower secondary education (ISCED 2). The typical duration of ISCED level 3 varies from two to five years.
Work Activity
The systemic entity of purposeful, cooperative human action, where several actors work in an organized way upon a shared object of work to transform it into an intended outcome, by using different kinds of means of work and means of cooperation and coordination. The intended outcome forms the purpose (motive) of the activity. Information entities, information tools, and information systems are used within work activities alongside with other means of work and means of cooperation and coordination.
Work-place learning
Learning which takes place on site in the workplace, which can be statutory (e.g. health and safety), occupational and related to specific jobs, or wider programmes such as literacy, numeracy and language.
Working group
A collection of individuals that come together to achieve a stated objective. In a business context, a working group might involve people from different divisions or even companies that are collaborating on a project that requires their particular expertise or time.
Young people not in employment, education or training
The number of young people aged 16-24 who are not participating in education or work-related training and are not in work.
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