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Access to WBL

This part defines in which way access to the Work-based Learning is organized and facilitated.

Access to WBL  in Albania

The curricula of secondary VET system are organized in two levels, that is the frame curricula and school curricula.

The time alocation of WBL in the curricula is the same in all occupations, which belong to the same yearly VET structure, that is 2+1+1, or 2+2, or mono block of 4 years. The curricula are organized in three main categories, general theory, professional theory, and modules of vocational practice. WBL is integrated in the last category.

Initial Secondary Vocational Education, according to the Law on secondary vocational Education and Training in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is available to everyone, in accordance with the performance in primary school, personal interest and capabilities.

Besides the general objectives defined in the Framework Law on Secondary Vocational Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina (“Official Gazette BiH, number 18/03), secondary vocational education and training:

  1. Enables the student the right to secondary vocational education and training under equal conditions in accordance with his/her own interests and capabilities;
  2. offers the student support with choosing the right occupation and integration in society;
  3. Develops student awareness about the need for further education and training;
  4. Creates the conditions for development and promotion of traditional crafts;
  5. Harmonizes demand and market needs
  6. Brings vocational education and training on EU country level.


Access to WBL  in Kosovo*

According to the Law, all VET schools are entitled to implement WBL. So far a limited number of schools have the opportunity to realize it. This situation is due to lack of willingness by the businesses to collaborate with the schools, and lack of the qualified in-company instructor, who should  monitor the students.

According to the legislation, all of the students should take part in WBL, but the reality is that only a limited number of students can be placed in the company. For the schools possessing workshops equipped with certain equipment, the WBL for students of Grade 10 it takes place inside it. For the students of grade 11 and 12 the schools search for businesses interested to establish the partnership on receiving the students for WBL within their premises.

All of the companies that show interest and possess satisfactory conditions for realization of the WBL are allowed to be part of WBL access. This takes place after the Memorandum of Cooperation is signed by both parties…


Access to WBL in Montenegro

Vocational education is available to everyone and may not be directly or indirectly limited on the grounds of: gender, race, colour of skin, language, religion, marital status, political or other belief, national, ethnic or other origin, material status, disability, on any other similar ground, position or circumstance, in compliance with special law. VET students of I, II and III grade of VET school may start with WBL. Usually, it is the school which establishes cooperation on WBL with employers in advance, but it is also possible that individual VET students find an employer and arrange the cooperation.  Only three-year VET curricula may be implemented via the dual system. One and the same VET curriculum is delivered to all VET students, regardless of whether they attend work-based learning or school-based classes. The difference is in the implementation of the programme of practical training subjects, which is the part of respective curriculum containing informative and formative goals. Schools are obliged to submit to employers i.e. in-company trainers the programme of practical training subjects…


Access to WBL in North Macedonia

Collaboration of schools and mentors (at the employers’)  plays an important role in the education and training of students. The school should take responsibility over the connection of all partners participating in education – both in the school and in the work process (pupils, parents, employers and trade or commerce chambers).
An open, honest and clear communication between the school, employers and students is required, as well as respecting the characteristics of all partners and in accordance with the existing school and work legislation.

All the schools have an obligation to implement the WBL process, also the students according to the curriculum. As stipulated by  the Law on VET, companies are permitted to conduct practical training if they meet specific requirements with regard to premises, equipment and appropriate staff, and if they have an interest…


The structure of the pupils’ enrolment into the secondary vocational schools, based on fields of work for educational profiles in the Republic of Serbia (the network of schools) is established by the Ministry of education, science and technological development in cooperation with the local self-government.

The structure of the pupils’ enrolment into the secondary vocational schools for various educational profiles in dual education is established on the basis of the needs of businesses and possibilities for further education. School management, in cooperation with the competent autonomous county creates the municipality’s or city’s or proposal for the enrolment plan of pupils into secondary schools.

Other bodies can also be included into the development of the proposal – such as employers, the organization in charge of employment at a particular local self-government, Chamber of Commerce of the Republic of Serbia and other interested parties.

The Chamber of commerce trains the Committee for analyzing whether the conditions for performing work-based learning at the employers’ premises for an educational profile or group of educational profiles are met.

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