Types of Work-based learning
Work-based learning in Albania aims to facilitate the transition of young people educated in VET schools to the labour market, as well as reducing the risk of unemployment of VET graduates.
According to the PLACE and MODALITIES, in Albania there are three main types of WBL:
- School Based Vocational Practice where the work conditions are simulated (labs, workshops, farms, training firms etc.)..
- Company Based Vocational Practice (distributed or in block), in the real job conditions.
- Apprenticeship, as formalized type of WBL.
- School Based Vocational Practice:
- Variety of experiences – adaptation of an inherited concept to the new social and economic conditions
- Different situation in different schools/qualifications
- Formalized (planned, organized, financed)
- Regulated with strictly defined modalities
- Implemented in block, distributed or alternated form
- Implemented in school labs, workshops, training firms etc.
- Develop initial levels of vocational competences
- Limited impact on transferable competences such as work organization and entrepreneurship.
- Company Based Vocational Practice:
- Practice is carried out at the company work environment, mainly during the last years of schooling.
- School–company relations: not regulated, sporadic and based in personal relations.
- Swisscontact: contractual agreement with automobile services (internship type)
- Albiz and IPA program: PASO model
- Albavet project: school – farm reciprocal profit.
- Apprenticeship, as formalized type of WBL.
- ERASMUS+: Apprenticeship in HOT-TUR .
- The first initiative of introducing Apprenticeship Schemes with the “Youth Employment Programs for Albania” project funded by the Erasmus Program ended on 31 March 2017. In the frame of the project a Roadmap for the implementation of dual cooperative training was developed and validated with stakeholders.
The ratio of the school-based and company-based trainings:
- Time alocation of practice modules for the curricula of 2+1+1 structure, which includes hotel & tourism occupational field is:
- Level AQF level II, class 10 – 6 school hours (45’)/week or 216 hours/year, about 20%;
- Level AQF level II, class 11 – 12 hours/week or 408 hours/year, about 40%;
- Level AQF level III, class 12 – 15 hours/week, or 510 hours/year, about 50%;
- Level AQF level IV, class 13 – 6 hours/week, or 204 hours/year, about 20%;
- Time alocation of practice modules for the curricula of 2+2 structure is:
- AQF Level II, class 10 – 6 school hours (45’)/week or 216 hours/year, about 20%;
- AQF Level II, class 11 – 9 hours/week or 306 hours/year, about 30%;
- AQF Level IV, class 12 – 12 hours/week or 432 hours/year, about 40%;
- AQF Level IV, class 13 – 6 hours/week or 192 hours/year, about 20%;
- Time alocation of practice modules for the curricula of mono block 4 years structure is:
- Level II+III+IV, class 10 – 6 school hours (45’)/week or 216 hours/year, about 20%;
- Level II+III+IV, class 11 – 9 hours/week or 324 hours/year, about 30%;
- Level II+III+IV, class 12 – 11 hours/week or 396 hours/year, about 35%;
- Level II+III+IV, class 13 – 8 hours/week or 272 hours/year, about 25%;
Programmes and Standards:
All occupational standards, qualifications standards, frame curricula apply equally nationwide. NAVETQ, in close cooperation with the companies, develops occupational standards and qualification descriptions. Some of occupational standards and qualification descriptions can be found at the link below:
Type of contract are:
- school-company – student
- Usually, the VET school and interested companies sign a contract at the beginning of each academic year.
- These contracts are mostly generic.
- Bilateral contracts between companies, schools and individual learners, which would regulate the rights and duties of all three parties with regard to training delivery and learning assessment, are not common practice.
Individual contract on work-based learning contains two main parts:
- I. Contractual parties
- The Company name, Designation, Profile, Representative name, Address, Tel.
- Name and surname of student/trainee, date of birth, place of residence, telephone number
- The parent (or the legal representativ e), Name, Surname, Address, Tel.
- School, Designation, Profile, Representative name, Address, Tel.
- II. Profession and on-the-job-training duration
- Name of occupation
- Beginning and duration of practical training
Continuing professional development of teachers and instructors in VET
Continued professional development of teachers is one of the main pillars of quality assurance in vocational education. Based on a thorough analysis of the pre-service and in-service system of teachers and instructors of theoretical and professional practice, two strategic documents have been drafted with GIZ support, namely a “Human Resource Development Guide to VET” and a “Concept-Paper for Initial and Continuing Teacher Training in VET”. A 24-day program “Didactic Basics in VET” has been developed and 342 teachers and instructors will be trained by the end of 2017.
National Agency for VET and Qualifications (NAVETQ), with support from GIZ, launched a Basic Didactic and Pedagogy programme for VET teachers and practice instructors from VET providers, starting with the development of materials and a first ‘Train of trainers’ course. The programme was initially conceived as an initial teacher training but is currently considered as a valuable investment in improving the quality of VET provision in Albania. Currently, there are 4 groups of teachers and instructors of VET attending the 24-days program “Didactic Basics in VET” about 100 teacher and instructors (Durres, Golem, Kavaje, Shkoder, Gjirokaster and Saranda).
The aim is that all VET teachers who are currently in the system, as well as any future VET teachers/instructors, attend this programme with a view to considerably enhance their pedagogical skills in everyday teaching practice.
There are no requirements regarding the qualification and competences of in-company trainers or mentors. A formal training programme for in-company trainers or mentors is not in place. There are also no public sector agencies that have a responsibility for supporting the training of in-company trainers (ETF, 2016a, p. 34), although in-company trainers were trained together with VET teachers in 2017 as part of the Erasmus+ project.
The Ministry of Finance and Economy and the NAVETQ with the support of the Swiss contact project “Skills for job” (S4J) is working on the capacity building of mentors aimed at the implementation and quality of WBL. These activities are mainly implemented via seminars and trainings.
The position of a school–business liaison person (PASO) was established in several vocational schools in Albania. PASOs are responsible for establishing and maintaining connections with businesses; coordinating meetings in enterprises for learners along with site visits; establishing connections and internship contracts for VET students; organising meetings and discussions with businesses at local level to support curriculum development. There are currently nine active PASOs in the vocational school system. The MoSWY plans to install a PASO in each of the 19 major VET institutions in the near future (ETF, 2016f, p. 12).