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Types/formats of the WBL in Serbia

1. VISITS (observing the work)


The Majority of educational profiles that include this type of WBL is on level NQF 4

This type of WBL is based on school – company contracts and capability of school coordinator for practical learing to organize this type of WBL


(1-2 weeks, like inso-called
classical profiles) 
School – company contracts for majority of qualifications


3. DUAL ELEMENTS (0.5-2 days a week)


There are 10 qualifications which are based on dual/cooperative model of WBL, or have elements of dual education.

This type is based on the contract between student, company and schools.


4. INTERNSHIPS (1-2 months during the school breaks)


Internships exist in the sectors of agriculture, veterinary medicine, tourism and hospitality

VET schools strive to find work-based learning places for students


5. APPRENTICESHIPS (1-3 days per week – student has a contract) Apprenticeships exist in qualifications that are based on dual education model, and are based on contracts between the student and the company, and the school and the company


Programmes and standards

There are 245 educational profiles, 95 of which are made according to qualification standards, and 33 according to the model of dual education.


There are several kinds of contracts/agreements:

Agreement on Business-Technical Cooperation between the school and company. It is being concluded between the school and company wherein the practical training will take place.

Scholarship Agreement which the company concludes with certain students for whom the practical training is organized at the company’s premises.

The Agreement on Business-Technical Cooperation and the Scholarship agreement have no legal form, but are being made according to the needs and preferences of the interested parties, therefore can contain various elements.

The Agreement on Dual Education governs the relationship between the school and company, while the relationship between the student and parent or legal representative of the student is being governed by the Work-based Learning Agreement.

The Agreement on Dual Education defines: the educational profile of the contract, the obligations of the school with regards to the realization of the Curriculum; obligations of the employer with regard to work-based learning; the WBL Curriculum; timetable of WBL; maximum number of students which can participate in WBL.

The Agreement on Dual Education defines the medical conditions for the educational profile; obligations of the Employer to organize and realize WBL in accordance with the Curriculum; if the curriculum is being realized in the national minority language, the obligations of the employer to organize and realize WBL in that language; the time and place of WBL realization, obligations of the student with regards to the time spent, learning, safety and protection during WBL at the company; material security of the student; financial security of the student; period of duration of the agreement; termination of contract and reasons for that; solving possible disputes.

A part of the Agreement on Dual Education is the WBL Realization Plan.

The Chamber of Commerce of Serbia regularly updates the register of employees which fulfill the terms and conditions for Dual Education. The Register is a unique electronic database, and data from the register are published on the official website of the Chamber of Commerce of Serbia.

Obligatory elements of the Agreement on Dual Education are: 1. Name, location and identification number of the company, as well as the number under which it is registered in the Chamber of Commerce; 2. Name and location of the school; 3. Education profile regarding which the contract is; 4. Obligations of the Employer/ Company to conduct the WBL on its own expense; 5. Obligations of the school regarding realization of WBL; 6. Obligations of the employer regarding WBL; 7. WBL Curriculum; 8. Timetable of WBL; 9. Maximum number of students the school can enroll into WBL; 10. Number of licensed instructors which the employer assures for these purposes; 11. Duration period of the Agreement; 12. Reasons for termination of agreement; 13. Solving possible disputes; 14. Date and signatures

Capacity building activities

There are several capacity building activities such as

  • promoting the attractiveness of VET to students of the final grades of primary schools, by organizing“open door”, visits to the schools and presentations of the possibilities of VET, organizing days of VET schools, or use of printed and digital media…
  • establishing the dual principle in Secondary VET education by creating flexible curricula in future qualifications.
  • Within sectoral councils searching for demand of (future) qualifications and competences.
  • Organizing round tables, conferences and also training for all participants in this process.

Attention should be paid to the following:

  • Teacher competences
  • Modern equipments, technology and learning material
  • Reactions to the school surrounding
  • Validity of evaluation and exams
  • Strategy for professional deveopment of school staff.

For VET based on cooperation with companies (dual model), 2 main factors are priority:

  • Minimum standards for participation and including companies in the VET program (dual education model)
  • Ambitious quality standards for creating WBL (dual education model) processes.

The recommendations can also be summarized as follows:

  • Consolidate the existing principles introduced for the part of the dual education model performed at schools, and transfer them to the unique quality framework which will be dealing with key issues of quality development.
  • Introduce standard of quality for licensing companies for participation in VET (dual education model) programs.
  • Create a methodology for analysis and development of quality of WBL (dual education model).
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