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Work-based learning in Montenegro

The system of work-based learning in Montenegro (dual education system) is regulated by the Law on Vocational Education and Training. It is aimed at facilitating the transition of young people educated in VET schools to labour market, as well as reducing the risk of unemployment of VET graduates.

Law on Vocational Education and Training stipulates that the budget of the Ministry of Education ensures funds for the salaries of students of the first and second grade in dual education system. The salaries of students in the third grade are the duty of the employer. The amount of the salary in the first grade is at least 10% average net salary, at least 15% average net salary in the second grade and at least 20% average net salary in the third grade.

Employers are not obliged to pay health and pension insurance for students, as it was case before.

Student, or their parent/tutor, shall sign individual contract on practical training which regulates mutual rights and responsibilities of students and employers during dual education term, as well as the role of the school.

So far, the schools cooperated with employers in implementation of practical training. The main difference between the school-based practical training and dual education is that in dual education, the employer is in charge of educating students and the check of the achievements of students in order to progress towards the next grade is conducted at the end of the school year. The check is conducted by the employer and the school. In school-based form, regardless of the time spent at employer, the check is conducted only by the school. Employer ensures their space and equipment.

In dual education, employer is responsible for the organization, content and quality of practical training.

Employer’s responsibilities:

  • To ensure conditions for students to skills and competences during regular attendance of practical training, in accordance with curriculum;
  • To maintain records and documentation on attendance and achievements of students during practical training;
  • To ensure protection during practical training in compliance with regulations in the area of protection at work and to inform students on such regulations;
  • To take care on the health of students.

Students’ responsibilities:

  • To regularly attend practical training at employer and other lessons at school, in accordance with curriculum;
  • To abide by the instructions of employer i.e. instructor of practical training and school;
  • To duly keep work diary during the attendance of practical training;
  • To keep business secret and property of the employer;
  • To adhere to the house rules of the employer;
  • To behave in compliance with regulations in the area of protection at work;
  • To fulfil other duties specified by individual contract on education.


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