Policy and Regulation in Albania
In Albania, the reform of VET provision focuses on completing the new legal framework for VET, expanding and developing institutional capacities, providing training for all staff and gradually filling the gaps between labour market needs and the skills and qualifications offered.
- National strategy for employment and Skills, 2014-2020 (NESS) came into force through approval by Decision of the Council of Ministers (DCM) No. 818 on 26.11.2014. In order to implement the NESS Albania’s VET system is under pressure to undergo a comprehensive reform process where the realization of dual training approaches play a leading role. The NESS is focusing on the following four sub-strategies:
- Foster decent job opportunities through effective labour market policies.
- Offer quality vocational education and training to youth and adults.
- Promote social inclusion and territorial cohesion.
- Strengthen the governance of the labour market and qualification system
- Article 17 recognizes the contract of apprenticeship.
- Article 17/1 defines “the training master is obliged to train the apprentice according to occupational standards and the apprentice on the other hand is obliged to work with his training master in order to be qualified”. This provision of the Labor Code is supplemented with the respective decision of the Council of Ministers , which contains definitions related to relationship between the training master and apprentice, provides the student is paid for the time he works with his training master, gives him the right to pursue vocational education without employment interruption and enter the exams without deduction of salary for the time he dedicates to them, and even provides no less than 5 weeks annual holidays for apprentices up to 20 years old. Besides that, the training master has the right to issue the certificate. There are not known implemented cases as per this provision in the current Albanian reality.
- Articles 98 – 103 provide on “Special protection to minors”. These code provisions are supplemented by two specific decisions of the Council of Ministers5,6 . They define that vocational training and traineeships in enterprises are allowed.
Law 15/2017 “On Vocational Education and Training”:
- Article 4/nj defines “the dual form” in VET as follows “… combines education and training in a VET institution with the work and practical training in a company, according to the definitions in the agreement arranged between the participant, VET institution and company;”
- Article 6/ç of the law recognizes “the dual form” as one of VET forms in Albania;
- Article 7/e includes “the company” among other VET institutions;
- Article 7/1/1 defines the governing board of public VET providers as “collegial body, which represents the interests of students/trainees, business community, social partners, as well as local government”;
- Article 7/1/2/a includes among seven members of the board of public VET provider “two representatives from private sector related to the profile of VET provider”;
- Law on Social Insurance
- Article 6/ç provides on the mandatory health insurance against accidents for trainees and students for the duration of work-based learning, by their employers. This provision of the law is supplemented by the Decision of Council of Ministers10, which states that students of secondary education and high schools are insured for the duration of unpaid work-based learning period by the respective employer, at 0.3% of the minimum gross salary, equal to 66 ALL per month, only for accidents at work and occupational diseases, as long as defined in the agreed respective contract between the parties.
The roles and responsibilities of the main players are defined as following:
- The Responsible Ministry adopts secondary legislation and sets the vision for WBL.
- NAVETQ defines the standards (learning outcomes), develops the frame curricula, support the schools with additional curricula implementation guidelines, assessment instruments.
- National VET Council gives advises to the MoFE for VET issues.
- WBL Provider delivers the vocational qualification (certification).
- Businesses give contribution to develop the occupational standards and qualifications in close cooperation with NAVETQ. The business gives the students the opportunity to involve in all work processes.